Inherited variations in UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) are associated with an increased breast cancer risk in women of African ancestry. The UGT1A1*28 promoter polymorphism is characterized by the presence of 7 TA repeats in the TATA box sequence and results in reduced UGT1A1 gene expression and enzymatic activity. In this study, we investigated associations between the UGT1A1*28 polymorphism and breast cancer risk among African American (AA) women in Memphis, Tennessee, a city with increased breast cancer mortality rates among AA women. Saliva was collected from 352 AA women, including breast cancer cases (n=82) and controls (n=270) between June 2016 to June 2017. DNA was isolated and sequenced for the UGT1A1*28 polymorphism. The odds ratio for cases with the low UGT1A1 activity alleles (TA)7/8 repeat genotypes versus 5/5, 5/6, and 6/6 genotypes was 1.46 [95% CI, 0.65-3.31; P = 0.36] in premenopausal women and 1.10 (95% CI, 0.52-2.38; P = 0.79) in postmenopausal women. Further analysis of TCGA RNA-seq data showed that UGT1A1 mRNA was significantly lower among estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancers from AA as compared to non-Hispanic white women with ER-negative breast cancer. Larger epidemiological studies are needed to determine the functional consequence of the UGT1A1*28 polymorphism on breast cancer risk in AA women.