Chronic respiratory diseases have become a major global concern in the recent times due to increased air pollution, especially in the urban population and asthma is most common among them. Increase in the recent few decades has projected India to be one of the leading countries prevalent to asthma. The chronic inflammation that occurs in asthma is known to generate reactive oxygen species that may lead to DNA damage. The main objective of the present study was to assess the frequency of micronuclei and other nuclear anomalies in the exfoliated buccal mucosa in asthmatic subjects in comparison to controls and with respect to duration and severity of the disease. Significant elevation was observed in MN, BN, BE and KL frequency (p<0.01) in asthmatic subjects as compared to controls. The DNA damage was markedly higher in patients with severe asthma as compared to those with mild and moderate asthma (p<0.01). The genomic instability was also found positively correlated with the age of subjects whereas a negative correlation was obtained with FVC and FEV1% predicted values of the asthmatic subjects.