The objective of this study was to assess breast cancer incidence and mortality rates by molecular subtype for cases diagnosed in New Jersey. Data on all primary, histologically confirmed, invasive breast cancers diagnosed among women between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2013 were retrieved from the New Jersey State Cancer Registry. Age-adjusted incidence rates were calculated for each subtype, by age, race/ethnicity, and tumor stage. Logistic regression models, Cox proportional hazards models, and Kaplan Meier curves were used to describe the relative risks for breast cancer incidence, mortality, and survival, respectively. In this population-based sample of 32,770 breast cancer cases, non-Hispanic Blacks (NHBs) had the highest triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) incidence rate (17.8 per 100,000, 95% CI 16.5-19.2) compared to other races/ethnicities. NHBs had also higher odds of TNBC (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.95-2.36) and higher hazards of death when diagnosed with TNBC (HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.05-1.56), luminal A (HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.41-1.91), or luminal B (HR 1.54, 95% CI 1.10-2.15) than non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs). Younger women (20-39 years) had higher odds of TNBC (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.54-2.02) and luminal B (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.35-1.80) compared to women 50-64 years; minority women had higher odds of non-luminal HER2-expressing and lower odds of luminal A than NHWs. TNBC was associated with the poorest survival rates. These findings highlight a need for enhanced screening to promote earlier diagnosis and improve breast cancer outcomes, particularly in minorities and younger women, which will be essential for achieving health equity.